Geomagnetic polarity dating
The first magnetic compasses were made from lodestones, while more modern magnetic compasses played an important role in the history of navigation. Isaac Newton applied his theory of mechanics to the tides and the precession of the equinox; and instruments were developed to measure the Earth's shape, density and gravity field, as well as the components of the water cycle.In the 20th century, geophysical methods were developed for remote exploration of the solid Earth and the ocean, and geophysics played an essential role in the development of the theory of plate tectonics.This article collects evidences that place a lower limit on the age of the Universe beyond the 6,000 to 10,000 years asserted by most Young Earth creationists (YECs) and the literalist Ussher chronology.All of this evidence supports deep time: the idea, considered credible by scientists since the early 1800s, that the Earth (and the Universe) is millions These limits usually take the form: "Because we observe [X], which occurs at rate [Y], the universe must be at least [Z] years old".Adams, Gullibility, Michigan UFO, Media exodus, Earth orbit, Spiral CC Telegraph 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Surface tension makes these water drops round so they cover the smallest possible surface area.
However, modern geophysics organizations use a broader definition that includes the water cycle including snow and ice; fluid dynamics of the oceans and the atmosphere; electricity and magnetism in the ionosphere and magnetosphere and solar-terrestrial relations; and analogous problems associated with the Moon and other planets.
Although geophysics was only recognized as a separate discipline in the 19th century, its origins date back to ancient times.
There are three standard creationist responses: First, creationists assert that current rates (Y) are different than past rates.
It is possible that these rates changed — but under uniformitarianism, which is necessary for science to function, we must assume that rates did not change unless there is evidence for this change.
Geophysics is a highly interdisciplinary subject, and geophysicists contribute to every area of the Earth sciences.